This report was commissioned in February 2021 by the International Publishers Association (IPA) and the International Federation of Reproduction Rights Organisations (IFRRO).

Its objective is to provide a high-level overview of the deployment of technical standards in the global publishing value and supply chains, with a particular emphasis on where the standards infrastructure may need development if it is to meet the needs of some or all participants in those chains – creators (authors, illustrators, photographers); publishers; intermediaries of many different kinds; collective organisations (particularly Collective Management Organisations, CMOs); and consumers (end users).


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